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Durood o Salaam on Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wasallam

Posted by Admin on February 17, 2010

Sending Blessings & Peace Upon the Prophet Muhammad [saw]

The Last Messenger of Allah, Muhammad [saw] is the greatest benefactor of humanity and a source of guidance for all Muslims. Loving him is an essential part of faith.

Narrated Anas bin Malik ؓ , the Prophet [saw] said “None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind.” (Agreed Upon )

The best way to express love for the Prophet [saw] is to send peace and blessings upon him. Regarding this, Allah says in the Holy Quran:

“Indeed, Allah confers blessing upon the Prophet, and His angels [ask Him to do so]. O you who have believed, ask [Allah to confer] blessing upon him and ask [Allah to grant him] peace.” (Chapter 33, Surah Al-Ahzab, Ayah 56)

‘Durood’ is a Persian word which has been adapted into Urdu. The equivalent for ‘Durood’ in Arabic is ‘Salaah’, which means blessings, mercy and supplications. When attributed to Allah , the meaning of ‘Salaah’ is that He sends His Grace and Blessings on the Prophet [saw]. With regards to the angels and people, it means that they make supplication to Allah to confer His blessings upon the Prophet [saw].

Reciting
صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم (‘sallallahu alyihi wa sallam’) whenever the name of the Prophet [saw] is heard, written or read is an act of great virtue and excellence.

Virtues of Invoking Blessings and Peace Upon the Prophet [s.aw]

Elevation of Status
Anas bin Malik ؓ relates that the Prophet [saw] said, “He who sends blessings on me once Allah sends blessings on him ten times and removes from him ten sins and raises him by ten degrees.” (Sunan Nasai)

Worthy of Intercession
Abu al-Darda’ ؓ relates that the Messenger of Allah [saw] said, “Whoever sends blessings on me ten times in the morning and ten times in the evening will have my intercession on the Day of Judgment.”
(Sahih al-Jami’ as-Sagheer)

Relief from Misery and Sorrow
Ubayy bin Ka`b ؓ relates: I said, “O Messenger of Allah [saw], I send much blessings on you. What proportion of my prayer should I devote to (sending blessings on) you?” He said, “As much as you like.”
I said, “A quarter?” He said, “As much as you like, and if you increased it would only be better for you.”
I said, “Then a half?” He said, “As much as you like and if you increased then it would only be better for you.”
I said, “Then two thirds?” He said, “As much as you like and if you increased it would only be better for you.”
I said, “I’ll devote all of my prayers to sending blessings on you.” The Prophet [saw] said, “In that case it will suffice you from your worries and your sins will be forgiven.”
(Jami’ Tirmidhi)

Source of Blessings
‘Abdurrahman bin ‘Auf ؓ relates that the Messenger of Allah [saw] went out once and he followed him until he entered a grove of palm trees and prostrated. His prostration was so long that ‘Abdurrahman feared that Allah had taken his soul. ‘Abdurrahman came to look at him and he raised his head and said: “What is wrong, Abdurrahman?” Abdurrahman mentioned what had happened, and the Prophet [saw] said: “Gabriel ؑ came to me and said: ‘Shall I not give you glad tidings? Allah says to you, “Whoever sends blessings upon you, I confer blessings upon him. Whoever sends salutations to you, I send peace on him.”’ Therefore, I prostrated to Allah in thanks”.
(Musnad Ahmed and Al-Hakim)

Acceptance of Supplications
Abdullah bin Mas’ud ؓ narrates: I was once praying, and the Prophet [saw], Abu Bakrؓ and Umar ؓ (were all present). When I sat down (in the final tashahhud), I praised Allah, then sent salaams on the Prophet [saw], then started praying for myself. At this, the Prophet [saw] said:
‘Ask (in this manner) and you shall be given! Ask, and you shall be given it!’
(Jami’ Tirmidhi)

Increase in Reward
Abu Huraira ؓ relates that the Prophet [saw] said, “Whoever sends blessings on me once, Allah writes ten good deeds in his book of deeds.” (Fadal as-Salaah ala an-Nabi)

Disadvantages of Not Sending Peace & Blessings

(Durood o Salaam) Upon the Prophet [saw]
• Ali ؓ reported: The Messenger of Allah [saw] said, “The one in whose presence I am mentioned and does not send blessings on me is a miser.” (Jami’ Tirmidhi)
• Abdullah bin Abbas ؓ narrates that the Messenger of Allah [saw] said: “Whosoever forgot to send peace and blessings on me strayed from the path of Jannah.” (Sunan Ibn Majah)
• Anas bin Malik ؓ stated that the Messenger of Allah [saw] said: “No supplication is responded to until blessings are sent upon me.” (Sahih al- Jami’ as- Sagheer)

Occasions for Invoking Blessings

There is no restriction of time and place, nor are there any special requirements for sending peace and blessings on the Prophet [saw].
• No matter when or where a believer supplicates for blessings and peace on the Prophet [saw], it is delivered to him ( Musnad Ahmed)
• The Prophet [saw] has taught us to send peace and blessings upon him in the last part (tashahhud) of the salaah (Jami’ Tirmidhi)
• It is prescribed (masnoon) to send peace and blessings upon the Messenger of Allah [saw] after the second takbeer of the funeral prayers (Musnad Shaf’i)
• Sending peace and blessings upon the Prophet [saw] after hearing the call to prayer (adhaan) and before making supplications is a means of receiving ten blessings from Allah (Sahih Muslim)
• The supplication for peace and blessings made at the grave of the blessed Prophet [saw] is conveyed to him by the angels appointed for this purpose. (Sahih al-Jami’ as-Sagheer)
• Supplications for the Prophet [saw] made on Fridays are presented to him. (Sahih al-Jami’ as-Sagheer)
• The etiquette of making supplications, which have a greater likelihood of acceptance, is to first praise Allah , then send peace and blessings upon the Prophet [saw] and then supplicate (Jami’ Tirmidhi)
• It is recommended (masnoon) to send blessings upon the Prophet of Allah [saw] in every gathering because gatherings where this is not done may become a means of chastisement from Allah (Jami’ Tirmidhi)
• Sending blessings on the Prophet [saw] ten times in the morning and ten times in the evening will be a source of intercession on the Day of Judgment (Sahih al-Jami’ as-Sagheer)
• It is recommended to send blessings on the Prophet [saw] at the beginning of sermons and preaching, at gathering of learning (especially when ahadith of the Prophet [saw] are being taught), at the time of engagement or marriage, when writing and at the beginning of every righteous deed. It will be a cause for attaining Allah’s pleasure and mercy and facilitate the task at hand.

Inauthentic Practices

In matters of religion, one should avoid inauthentic and innovative practices, and not waste one’s time and energies on them in order to avoid loss on the Day of Judgment.

• The Messenger of Allah [saw] stated “If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected.” (Agreed Upon)
• Hafidh bin Hajar says that it is preferable to use the words taught by the Messenger of Allah [saw] himself.
• Imam Nawawi states that the prescribed (masnoon) way of sending blessings (durood) upon the Prophet [saw] is مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَى صَلِّ اللَّهُمَّ . Thus we should only use those words which have been taught to us by the Prophet [saw] in authentic traditions (sahih ahadith).
• Supplication for blessings upon the Prophet [saw] that are not proven by the authentic traditions should be avoided, like Durood Taj, Durood Muqaddas, Durood Akbar, Durood Lakhi, Durood Mahi, Durood Tanjeena and so on.
• Sending blessings on the Prophet [saw] before the call to prayer (adhaan), and aloud in congregation after obligatory prayers is not proved from any authentic tradition.

Prescribed Method of Salutation

• Narrated Abdullah bin Mas’ud ؓ: We used to say in the prayer: ‘As-Salam be on Allah, As-Salam be on so-and so.’ So one day the Prophet [saw] said to us, “Allah Himself is As-Salam; when anyone of you sits during his prayer, he should say:
التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ
“‘All the compliments are for Allah and all the prayers and all the good things (are for Allah). Peace be on you, O Prophet [saw], and Allah’s mercy and blessings (are on you). And peace be on us and on the good (pious) worshipers of Allah. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad [saw] is His slave and Messenger’. So, when you have said this, then you have surely sent the greetings to every good (pious) worshipper of Allah, whether he be in the Heaven or on the Earth.”
(Sahih Bukhari)

• Fatima ؓ says that whenever the Prophet of Allah [saw] entered the mosque he recited:
‏ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي ذُنُوبِي وَافْتَحْ لِي أَبْوَابَ رَحْمَتِكَ
“I enter the mosque in the name of Allah; Peace be upon the Messenger of Allah [saw]. O Allah! Forgive my sins and open the gates of mercy for me. ”
And when he left the mosque, he recited these words:
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي ذُنُوبِي وَافْتَحْ لِي أَبْوَابَ فَضْلِكَ
“I exit (from the mosque) in the name of Allah; Peace be upon the Messenger of Allah [saw]. O Allah! Forgive my sins and open Your gates of bounties for me.” (Sunan Ibn Majah)

• It is narrated by Aisha ؓ that the Prophet [saw] after finishing his prayers would recite these words three times:
سُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ وَسَلاَمٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
“Exalted is your Lord, the Lord of might, above what they describe; and peace upon the messengers. And praise to Allah , Lord of the worlds.” (Jami’ Tirmidhi)

• Whenever Abdullah bin Umar ؓ returned from a journey, he would visit the grave of the Messenger of Allah [saw] and make the following supplication:
السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا رَسُولِ اللَّهِ
“Peace be upon you O Messenger of Allah [saw]!” (Fadal as-Salaah ala an-Nabi)

Conveying of Salutations & Response

• It was narrated by Abdullah bin Mas’ud ؓ that the Messenger of Allah [saw] said: “Some angels appointed by Allah go around on earth, and convey to me the salutations (salaam) sent by my ummah.” (Sunan Nasai)

• Narrated Abu Huraira ؓ: The Prophet [saw] said: “If any one of you greets me, Allah returns my soul to me and I respond to the greeting” (Sunan Abu Dawud)

In the life of barzakh (stage of afterlife before Day of Judgment), the salutations (salaam) are conveyed to the Prophet [saw] through appointed angels. How is that possible? Regarding this we have not been given any knowledge. We should be firm in our belief that Allah has Supreme Power and nothing is impossible for Him; and that we should accept without questions matters which have not been revealed to us.

Prescribed Words of Blessings for the Prophet [saw]

1. اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ، وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ، اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ، وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
“O Allah! Send Your mercy on Muhammad [saw] and on the family of Muhammad [saw], as You sent Your mercy on Abraham and on the family of Abraham, for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious. O Allah! Send Your blessings on Muhammad [saw] and the family of Muhammad [saw], as You sent your blessings on Abraham and on the family of Abraham, for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious.”
(Sahih Bukhari)
2. اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَأَزْوَاجِهِ وَذُرِّيَّتِهِ، كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَبَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَأَزْوَاجِهِ وَذُرِّيَّتِهِ، كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
“O Allah! Send Your mercy on Muhammad [saw] and on his wives and on his off spring, as You sent Your mercy on the family of Abraham; and send Your blessings on Muhammad [saw] and on his wives and on his offspring, as You sent Your blessings on the family of Abraham, for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious.”
(Sahih Bukhari)
3. اَللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ النَّبِیِّ الْاُمِّيِّ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَبَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ النَّبِیِّ الْاُمِّيِّ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
“O Allah! Send Your mercy on Muhammad [saw] the unlettered Messenger and on the family of Muhammad [saw], as You sent Your mercy on Abraham and on the family of Abraham. And send Your blessings on Muhammad [saw] the unlettered Messenger and the family of Muhammad [saw], as You sent your Blessings on Abraham and on the family of Abraham. Verily You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious.”
(Al Mustadrak ala as-Sahihain lil-Hakim)
4. اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ عَبْدِكَ وَرَسُولِكَ، كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَبَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ
“O Allah! Send Your mercy on your servant and messenger, Muhammad [saw], as You sent Your mercy on the family of Abraham; and send Your blessings on Muhammad [saw] and on the family of Muhammad [saw], as You sent Your blessings on Abraham.”
(Sahih Bukhari)
5.
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ النَّبِيِّ الاُمِّيِّ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
“O Allah! Bestow Your mercy upon Muhammad [saw] the unlettered Messenger and the family of Muhammad [saw]”
(Sunan Abu Dawud)
6.
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ، وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
“O Allah! Send Your mercy on Muhammad [saw] and on the family of Muhammad [saw]” (Sunan Nasai)

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Prophet Musa [علیہ السلام]: An Excellent Role Model

Posted by Admin on April 8, 2009

 Author: Sadaf Farooqi

If you study the Glorious Quran with in-depth reflection, you’ll be struck by how often Allah mentions Prophet Musa [علیہ السلام] in the Book, in one context or other. From his infancy to adulthood, to his family and communal life, Allah mentions him a total of 169 times in the Quran! I wondered what qualities this Prophet of Allah must have possessed that endeared him so much to Allah, that He chose him for Himself, had a private conversation with him, and granted him Prophet-hood?

 “And mention in the Book, Musa; Behold, he was a chosen one, and was an apostle, a Prophet” [19:51]

 

وَاصْطَنَعْتُكَ لِنَفْسِي

 

“And I have chosen you for Myself [O Musa].” [20:41]

There are, on close pondering, several qualities of Prophet Musa that shine out.

Wasting no time in turning to Allah:

Once a man from the slave-tribe of Bani Israel called out for help as a Coptic (Pharaoh’s tribesman) wrangled with him in the street. Musa [may Allah’s peace be upon him] rushed to defend him, accidentally killing the oppressive Coptic with an unintentionally hard blow to the chest. As soon as he saw what he’d done, he repented, sought forgiveness and vowed future good conduct:

“He said: “My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself, so forgive me.”

Then He forgave him. Verily, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.

“He said: “My Lord! For that with which You have favored me, I will never more be a helper for the ‘Mujrimun’ (criminals)!” [28: 16-17] 

Upon receiving the news of his eventual persecution by the Copts for this murder, he once again turned to Allah in earnest supplication, appealing for Divine deliverance and guidance, as he prepared to flee the town in secret. 

“So he escaped from there; fearful, vigilant. He said: “My Lord! Deliver me from the wrongdoing people!”

And when he turned his face toward Midian, he said: “Perhaps my Lord will guide me in the right road.”” [28: 21-22]

Hastening to obey Allah:

When Allah called Musa to a meeting on Mount Tŭr, he arrived earlier than the appointed time. The reason: to please Allah!

 

وَعَجِلْتُ إِلَيْكَ رَبِّ لِتَرْضَى

 

“I hastened to You, O my Lord, so that You might be pleased.”  [20:84]

Hastening to help the weak and oppressed:

As mentioned above, Prophet Musa [علیہ السلام] fled to another town in order to escape Pharaoh’s men, after he accidentally killed a man from their tribe. Thus, a shining quality in his nature is his eagerness to help weak, oppressed people. This quality again comes forth when he enters a new town and spots two girls in a plight:

“And when he came unto the water of Midian, he found there a whole tribe of men, watering. And he found apart from them two women keeping back (their flocks). He said: “What ails you?” The two said: “We cannot give (our flocks) to drink till the shepherds return from the water; and our father is a very old man.”” [28:23]

His compassionate nature again, after witnessing the girls’ plight, makes him help them, despite being on the run for his life:

“So he watered (their flock) for them.” [28:24]

Putting his trust solely in Allah:

Homeless, jobless, friendless and alone in a strange town, he helped two women chivalrously, but, unlike most unmarried young men today, he didn’t try to hang around, expecting any favors or friendships in return; rather, he turned to no one except his friend, Allah. He withdrew under a tree to sincerely call to His Lord for help.

Then he turned aside into the shade, and said: “My Lord! I am needy of whatever good You send down for me.” [28:24]

At such a sincere display of pure trust, his Lord responded to his prayer immediately:

“Then there came unto him one of the two women, walking shyly. She said: “My father bids you, that he may reward you with a payment for that you watered (the flock) for us.” Then, when he came unto him and told him the (whole) story, he said: “Fear not! You have escaped from the wrongdoing people.”” [28:25]

One of the two women said: “O my father! Hire him! For the best (man) that you can hire is the strong, the trustworthy.” [28:26]

He said: “I would marry you to one of these two daughters of mine, on condition that you hire yourself to me for (the term of) eight pilgrimages….Allah willing, you will find me of the righteous.” [28:27]

In response to his earnest prayers, Allah granted him a recommendation for work, a “permanent” job, a considerate employer, lavish accommodation, a chaste wife, and compassionate in-laws – all within the same day!

Prophet Musa’s conduct is a far cry from the attitudes of most us Muslims today, who put their trust first in their contacts, references and networking tools to land jobs or marriage proposals. Only when all other tangible avenues are exhausted do we weak-hearted believers turn to Allah in prayer. We ask others for help, shelter, food or money before turning to Him, the Creator, Sustainer, and the Source of provision.

The best compensation:

However, the ultimate recompense for the inherent good in Prophet Musa was yet to come. After testing his sincerity and obedience at the highest of levels, Allah chose him for Himself:

“And when he reached it (the fire), he was called from the right side of the valley in the blessed field, from the tree;

“O Moses! I, indeed I, am Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.” [28: 30]

What could possibly be better than to be summoned to a private counsel with Allah? To be ‘hired’ for the noblest mission?

Surely, in Prophet Musa, there is an excellent example for Muslims to emulate and abide by in daily life, so that we, too, can become those whom Allah chooses for Himself. 

(This article was first published in Saudi Gazette)

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